The CANDLE (Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood) Study follows healthy pregnant women through their pregnancy and delivery, and continues to follow them and their children until age 3. The CANDLE Extension Study follows these mothers and children from ages 4 to 7.
CANDLE is located in Memphis, Tennessee, specifically Shelby County which sits in the southwestern corner of the state of Tennessee. CANDLE began enrolling participants in December 2006. In June 2011, the recruitment goal of 1,503 participants was achieved.
Demographically, the cohort matches the Shelby County Census tract closely. All percentages below are for CANDLE moms only. Sixty-six percent of CANDLE participants are African American, while 31% are Caucasian. Shelby County’s is 60% and 27% respectively. Single mothers make up 63% of CANDLE’s sample, which parallels Shelby County’s 61%.
Fifty-six percent of the CANDLE cohort have completed high school, technical school or had ‘some’ college. Only 12% of our cohort has less than high school education. Twenty percent of our participants have a bachelor’s degree, with 11% having a graduate or professional degree.
The low-income category of CANDLE’s income status is the largest with 58% reporting <$35,000 a year. Eighteen percent of CANDLE’s participant are Middle income ($35,000-$74,999), and 15% are >$75,000, with 9% unknown.
(N = 1503)
|African American (%)||16||60||66|
|% of Births to Single Mothers||34||61||63|
|% Born to Mothers Aged 20-35 Years||73||77||82|
|< High School||18||29||12|
|High School, Some College, or Technical School||55||51||56|
|Low Income (<200% Poverty Level or < $35,000)||33||58||58|